Fertility-enhancing male reproductive surgery: glimpses into the past and thoughts for the future

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Over the past few decades, there have been numerous paradigm shifts in male reproductive surgery, resulting from a combination of technologic advancements in both the operating room and the laboratory. The operating microscope transformed the field of male reproductive surgery, enabling novel techniques and higher precision for the treatment of male-factor subfertility. The subsequent widespread adoption of microsurgical approaches was largely responsible for the emergence of a cadre of highly specialized male infertility microsurgeons.